utils.sh 20.7 KB
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#!/bin/bash

#
# database utility scripts
#

#
# "we've been properly sourced" flag function
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function check_properly_sourced() {
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  return 0
}
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export -f check_properly_sourced
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#
# display a general error message
# $1 -- additional error msg to display
function display_error {
  echo
  echo "########################################"
  echo "###   AN ERROR OCCURED, ABORTING!    ###"
  echo "###   ---------------------------    ###"
  echo "### inspect the log output carefully ###"
  echo "########################################"
  echo
  # if we have an additional error msg set, use it
  [ -z ${1+x} ] || {
    echo "$1"
    echo
  }
}
export -f display_error


#
# rudimentary error handling -- exit the script
function display_error_and_quit {
  if [ -z ${1+x} ]; then
    display_error
  else
    display_error "$1"
  fi
  read
  exit 1
}
export -f display_error_and_quit


#
# rudimentary error handling -- continue with next iteration of a loop
function display_error_and_continue {
  if [ -z ${1+x} ]; then
    display_error
  else
    display_error "$1"
  fi
  read
  continue
}
export -f display_error_and_continue


#
# rudimentary error handling -- break the loop
function display_error_and_break {
  if [ -z ${1+x} ]; then
    display_error
  else
    display_error "$1"
  fi
  read
  break
}
export -f display_error_and_break


#
# utility -- clean the variables used in the dump_*_scripts
function clean_db_vars {
    unset DATABASES
    unset DBUSERS
    unset DBGRANTS
}


#
# create a read-only user for a mysql database (or databases)
# $1             - database host to connect to
# $2             - user to connect as
# $3             - password for that user
# $4             - username to be created
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# $5             - optional; password for the user to be created
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#                  (if unset or an empty string, random password will be generated and printed on-screen)
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# $6             - optional; hostname of the user to be created
#                  (if unset or an empty string, '%' will be used)
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#
# the user gets SELECT, SHOW DATABASES, LOCK TABLES, EXECUTE, SHOW VIEW privileges on *all databases*
function create_readonly_mysql_user() {
    
    echo
    echo "creating a read-only user..."
    echo "+-- connection details:"
    echo "    +-- db host to connect to: $1"
    echo "    +-- db user to connect as: $2"
    
    echo "+-- read-only user details:"
    # the read-only user name -- simple enough
    RUSER_NAME="$4"
    echo "    +-- username: $RUSER_NAME"
    
    # read-only user hostname
    RUSER_HOST="%"
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    if [ ! -z ${6+x} ]; then
        RUSER_HOST="$6"
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    fi
    echo "    +-- hostname: $RUSER_HOST"
    
    # read-only user password
    # if supplied, use it
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    if [ ! -z ${5+x} ]; then
        RUSER_PW="$5"
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        echo "    +-- password: (provided on the command line)"
    # otherwise, create a random one
    else
        RUSER_PW="$( pwgen -s 24 1 )" || display_error_and_quit "Error generating password; is pwgen installed and in \$PATH?"
        echo "    +-- password: $RUSER_PW"
    fi
    
    # do the magic
    mysql -h "$1" -u "$2" --password="$3" --batch -e "GRANT SELECT, SHOW DATABASES, LOCK TABLES, EXECUTE, SHOW VIEW ON *.* TO '$RUSER_NAME'@'$RUSER_HOST' IDENTIFIED BY '$RUSER_PW';" \
        || display_error_and_quit "Error creating a read-only user."
}
export -f create_readonly_mysql_user

#
# this assumes we have *at least* read-only access to databases we want to dump
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# $1             - database host to connect to
# $2             - user to connect as
# $3             - password for that user
# $4             - targed directory; the directory and structure within ($4/, $4/schemas/, $4/dumps/) will be made sure to exist
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# $5 and further - optional, the databases to dump (dumping all if empty)
#
# relevant: https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.6/en/mysqldump.html
# 
# databases are dumped as schema (containing grants related to the database and CREATE statements) and data dump spearately,
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# put in $4/schemas/$database_name.schema.sql and $4/dumps/$database_name.dump.sql respectively
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# 
# this does *not* dump internal MySQL information_schema and performance_schema databases.
function dump_mysql_dbs {
    
    # clean the vars
    clean_db_vars
    
    # create the directory structure
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    mkdir -p "$4"
    mkdir -p "$4/schemas"
    mkdir -p "$4/dumps"
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    #
    # - if we have no additional arguments (5th and onwards), we need to dump all the databases (well, apart from information_schema and performance_schema)
    # - if we have such arguments, we can use WHERE `Database` IN ('$5', ...)
    DATABASES_WHERE=""
    if [ ! -z ${5+x} ]; then
        DATABASES_WHERE="WHERE \`Database\` IN ( '` echo "${@:5}" | sed -r -e "s/ /', '/g" ` )"
    fi
    
    # get the list of databases
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    DATABASES="$( mysql -h "$1" -u "$2" --password="$3" --batch -e "SHOW DATABASES $DATABASES_WHERE;" | egrep -v '(Database|information_schema|performance_schema)' )"
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    # either the code is 0, or the command failed; act accordingly.
    [ $? -eq 0 ] || display_error_and_quit
    
    # did we find anything?
    if [[ "$DATABASES" == "" ]]; then
        echo "        +-- no databases found."
        return 0
    fi
    
    #
    # if we had a list of databases, did we find all of them?
    # rationale: if we have a specific list of databases, we *expect* them to be dumped
    #            if we cannot find some of them, that should be clearly signalled
    if [ ! -z ${5+x} ]; then
        DATABASES_MISSING="$( echo "${@:5} $DATABASES" | tr ' ' '\n' | sort | uniq -u )"
        if [[ "$DATABASES_MISSING" != "" ]]; then
            # if not, complain and exit
            display_error_and_quit "Not all databases found; missing: $DATABASES_MISSING"
        fi
    fi
    
    # whoo hoo, found *something*
    echo "        +-- found `echo "$DATABASES" | wc -l` databases..."
    
    # is the db using authentication_string, or password for user passwords?
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    if [[ "$( mysql -h "$1" -u "$2" --password="$3" --batch --skip-column-names -e "SELECT COUNT(*) FROM information_schema.COLUMNS WHERE TABLE_SCHEMA = 'mysql' AND TABLE_NAME = 'user' AND COLUMN_NAME = 'password';" )" == "0" ]]; then
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        PWCOL="authentication_string"
    else
        PWCOL="password"
    fi
    echo "        +-- password column: $PWCOL"
    
    # get the list of users
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    DBUSERS="$( mysql -h "$1" -u "$2" --password="$3" --batch --skip-column-names -e "SELECT CONCAT('',QUOTE(user),'@',QUOTE(host),':',$PWCOL) FROM mysql.user WHERE user<>'';")"
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    [ $? -eq 0 ] || display_error_and_quit
    echo "        +-- found `echo "$DBUSERS" | wc -l` users..."
    
    # get all grants for said users
    DBGRANTS=""
    for user_host_pass in ${DBUSERS}; do
        # ignore root
        if echo "$user_host_pass" | grep "'root'@" >/dev/null; then
            continue
        fi
        DBUSER="$( echo "$user_host_pass" | cut -d ':' -f 1 )"
        DBUSERPW="$( echo "$user_host_pass" | cut -d ':' -f 2 )"
        # get the grants                                                                                                                                  # add IDENTIFIED BY <password>, but only when there was no IDENTIFIED BY there already
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        DBGRANTS=`echo -ne "$DBGRANTS\n$( mysql -h "$1" -u "$2" --password="$3" --batch --skip-column-names -e "SHOW GRANTS FOR $DBUSER;" | sed -r -e "s/(IDENTIFIED BY.*)$/ IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD '$DBUSERPW'/g" )"`
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        [ $? -eq 0 ] || display_error_and_quit
    done
    
    # iterate through databases
    for db in ${DATABASES}; do
        echo "        +-- working on db: $db"
        
        # files
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        SCHEMA_FILE="$4/schemas/$db.schema.sql"
        DUMP_FILE="$4/dumps/$db.dump.sql"
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        echo "        +-- schema file : $SCHEMA_FILE"
        echo "        +-- dump file   : $DUMP_FILE"
    
        # schema
        echo "            +-- schema..."
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        mysqldump -h "$1" -u "$2" --password="$3" --add-drop-database --no-data --databases "$db" > "$SCHEMA_FILE"
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        [ $? -eq 0 ] || display_error_and_quit
        
        # grants
        echo "            +-- grants..."
        echo '-- ------ --' >> "$SCHEMA_FILE"
        echo '-- GRANTS --' >> "$SCHEMA_FILE"
        echo '-- ------ --' >> "$SCHEMA_FILE"
        
        # TODO FIXME lacking password information...
        # SET PASSWORD FOR ... = HASH_STRING
        
        echo "${DBGRANTS}" | grep "ON \*." | sed -r -e 's/$/;/' >> "$SCHEMA_FILE"
        [ $? -lt 2 ] || display_error_and_quit # less than 2 here, because 0 on "found", 1 on "not found", 2 and above on "error"
        echo "${DBGRANTS}" | grep "ON \`${db}\`" | sed -r -e 's/$/;/' >> "$SCHEMA_FILE"
        [ $? -lt 2 ] || display_error_and_quit # less than 2 here, because 0 on "found", 1 on "not found", 2 and above on "error"
        # we need this for the privs to work after restore
        echo "FLUSH PRIVILEGES;" >> "$SCHEMA_FILE"
        
        # dump
        echo "            +-- dump..."
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        mysqldump -h "$1" -u "$2" --password="$3" --no-create-info --no-create-db --databases "$db" >> "$DUMP_FILE"
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        [ $? -eq 0 ] || display_error_and_quit
        
        echo "            +-- done."
    done
    
    # set the permissions so that 
    # this will not stop a root user from using these, but should make them stand out well enough
    echo "        +-- setting permissions on mysql.*"
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    chmod a= "$4"/*/mysql.*.sql
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    # we're done
    echo "        +-- done."
}
export -f dump_mysql_dbs


#
# create a read-only user for a postgresql database (or databases)
# $1             - database host to connect to
# $2             - user to connect as
# $3             - password for that user
# $4             - username to be created
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# $5             - optional; password for the user to be created
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#                  (if unset or an empty string, random password will be generated and printed on-screen)
#
# not as simple as the mysql version; we need to make sure that:
# a). given role is created...
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# b). ...and granted SELECT on pg_authid...
# c). ...and granted CONNECT on all databases...
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# d). ...and granted USAGE on all schemas in all databases...
# e). ...and granted SELECT on all tables and sequences in all schemas in all databases...
# f). ...and granted EXECUTE on all functions in all schemas in all databases...
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# g). ...and that the default privileges for all roles grant the new read-only role
#     SELECT on tables and sequences, and EXECUTE on functions created in the future.
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#
# ref. https://wiki.postgresql.org/images/d/d1/Managing_rights_in_postgresql.pdf
function create_readonly_postgres_user() {

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    # get the details
    PG_HOST="$1"
    PG_USER="$2"
    PG_PASS="$3"
    RUSER_NAME="$4"
    
    # read-only user password
    # if supplied, use it
    if [ ! -z ${5+x} ]; then
        RUSER_PW="$5"
        echo "    +-- password: (provided on the command line)"
    # otherwise, create a random one
    else
        RUSER_PW="$( pwgen -s 24 1 )" || display_error_and_quit "Error generating password; is pwgen installed and in \$PATH?"
        echo "    +-- password: $RUSER_PW"
    fi

    # make sure the role exists and has the basic required privileges (and lacks the unneeded ones)
    PGPASSWORD="$PG_PASS" psql -h "$PG_HOST" -U "$PG_USER" -c "
        CREATE ROLE $RUSER_NAME NOSUPERUSER NOCREATEDB NOCREATEROLE LOGIN NOREPLICATION PASSWORD '$RUSER_PW';
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        GRANT SELECT ON pg_authid TO $RUSER_NAME;" postgres \
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        || display_error_and_quit "Error creating the $RUSER_NAME role and granting SELECT on pg_authid."
    
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    # get the list of roles
    ROLES="$( PGPASSWORD="$PG_PASS" psql -h "$PG_HOST" -U "$PG_USER" -Aqt -c '\dg' | grep '|' | cut -d '|' -f 1 )" \
        || display_error_and_quit "Error getting list of databases"
    
    # and for each role
    for ROLE in $ROLES; do
        # set default privileges on tables/sequences/function
        PGPASSWORD="$PG_PASS" psql -h "$PG_HOST" -U "$PG_USER" -c "
            ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES FOR ROLE $ROLE GRANT SELECT ON TABLES TO $RUSER_NAME;
            ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES FOR ROLE $ROLE GRANT SELECT ON SEQUENCES TO $RUSER_NAME;
            ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES FOR ROLE $ROLE GRANT EXECUTE ON FUNCTIONS TO $RUSER_NAME;" \
            || display_error_and_quit "Error altering default privileges for role $ROLE"
    done
    
    
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    # get the list of databases
    DATABASES="$( PGPASSWORD="$PG_PASS" psql -h "$PG_HOST" -U "$PG_USER" -lAqt | grep '|' | cut -d '|' -f 1 | egrep -v "template[0-9]" )" \
        || display_error_and_quit "Error getting list of databases"

    # do we have any databases?
    if [[ "$DATABASES" == "" ]]; then
        echo "        +-- no databases found."
        return 0
    fi
    
    # and for each one of them
    for DATABASE in $DATABASES; do
        
        # grant CONNECT
        PGPASSWORD="$PG_PASS" psql -h "$PG_HOST" -U "$PG_USER" -c "GRANT CONNECT ON DATABASE $DATABASE TO $RUSER_NAME;" \
            || display_error_and_quit "Error granting CONNECT on database $DATABASE"
        
        # get all schemas
        SCHEMAS="$( PGPASSWORD="$PG_PASS" psql -h "$PG_HOST" -U "$PG_USER" -Aqt -c '\dn' | grep '|' | cut -d '|' -f 1 )" \
            || display_error_and_quit "Error getting list of schemas"
        
        # let's go through the schemas, then
        for SCHEMA in $SCHEMAS; do
            # grant USAGE on the schema
            PGPASSWORD="$PG_PASS" psql -h "$PG_HOST" -U "$PG_USER" -c "GRANT USAGE ON SCHEMA $SCHEMA TO $RUSER_NAME;" "$DATABASE" \
                || display_error_and_quit "Error granting USAGE on schema $SCHEMA"
        
            # grant SELECT on all tables and sequences, and EXECUTE on all functions, in the schema
            PGPASSWORD="$PG_PASS" psql -h "$PG_HOST" -U "$PG_USER" -c "
                GRANT SELECT ON ALL TABLES IN SCHEMA $SCHEMA TO $RUSER_NAME;
                GRANT SELECT ON ALL SEQUENCES IN SCHEMA $SCHEMA TO $RUSER_NAME;
                GRANT EXECUTE ON ALL FUNCTIONS IN SCHEMA $SCHEMA TO $RUSER_NAME;" "$DATABASE" \
                || display_error_and_quit "Error granting USAGE on schema $SCHEMA"
        done
    done
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}
export -f create_readonly_postgres_user


#
# this assumes we have *at least* read-only access to databases we want to dump
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# $1             - database host
# $2             - user to connect as
# $3             - password for that user
# $4             - targed directory; the directory and structure within ($4/, $4/schemas/, $4/dumps/) will be made sure to exist
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# $5 and further - optional, the databases to dump (dumping all if empty)
#
# relevant: http://www.postgresql.org/docs/current/static/app-pgdump.html
#
# databases are dumped as schema (containing grants related to the database and CREATE statements) and data dump spearately,
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# put in $4/schemas/$database_name.schema.sql and $4/dumps/$database_name.dump.sql respectively
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function dump_postgres_dbs {

    # clean the vars
    clean_db_vars

    # create the directory
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    mkdir -p "$4"
    mkdir -p "$4/schemas"
    mkdir -p "$4/dumps"
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    # get the list of databases
    # -l/--list         List all available databases,then exit. Other non-connection
    # -A/--no-align     Switches to unaligned output mode.
    # -q/--quiet        Specifies that psql should do its work quietly.
    # -t/--tuples-only  Turn off printing of column names and result row count footers, etc.
    # ref. http://linuxcommand.org/man_pages/psql1.html
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    DATABASES="$( PGPASSWORD="$3" psql -h "$1" -U "$2" -lAqt | grep '|' | cut -d '|' -f 1 | egrep -v "template[0-9]" )"
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    # either the code is 0, or the command failed; act accordingly.
    [ $? -eq 0 ] || display_error_and_quit

    # do we have any databases?
    if [[ "$DATABASES" == "" ]]; then
        echo "        +-- no databases found."
        return 0
    fi
    
    #
    # if we had a list of databases, did we find all of them?
    # rationale: if we have a specific list of databases, we *expect* them to be dumped
    #            if we cannot find some of them, that should be clearly signalled
    if [ ! -z ${5+x} ]; then
        DATABASES_MISSING="$( echo "${@:5} $DATABASES" | tr ' ' '\n' | sort | uniq -u )"
        if [[ "$DATABASES_MISSING" != "" ]]; then
            # if not, complain and exit
            display_error_and_quit "Not all databases found; missing: $DATABASES_MISSING"
        fi
    fi
    
    # list of users
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    DBUSERS="$( PGPASSWORD="$3" pg_dumpall -h "$1" --globals-only -U "$2" | egrep '(CREATE|ALTER) ROLE' )"
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    [ $? -eq 0 ] || display_error_and_quit
    echo "        +-- found `echo "$DBUSERS" | egrep "^CREATE" | wc -l` users..."
    
    
    # iterate through databases
    for db in ${DATABASES}; do
        echo "        +-- working on db: $db"
        
        # files
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        SCHEMA_FILE="$4/schemas/$db.schema.sql"
        DUMP_FILE="$4/dumps/$db.dump.sql"
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        echo "        +-- schema file : $SCHEMA_FILE"
        echo "        +-- dump file   : $DUMP_FILE"
        
        # schema
        echo "            +-- schema..."
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        PGPASSWORD="$3" pg_dump -h "$1" --create --clean --schema-only -U "$2" "$db" > "$SCHEMA_FILE"
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        [ $? -eq 0 ] || display_error_and_quit
        
        # grants
        echo "            +-- grants..."
        echo '-- ------ --' >> "$SCHEMA_FILE"
        echo '-- GRANTS --' >> "$SCHEMA_FILE"
        echo '-- ------ --' >> "$SCHEMA_FILE"
        
        USERS_GREP="$( cat "$SCHEMA_FILE" | grep 'GRANT' | sed -r -e 's/^GRANT.+TO ([^;]+);/\1/' | sort | uniq )"
        USERS_GREP="$( echo $USERS_GREP | tr ' ' '|' )"
        echo "$DBUSERS" | egrep " ($USERS_GREP)[; ]" >> "$SCHEMA_FILE"
        
        # dump
        echo "            +-- dump..."
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        PGPASSWORD="$3" pg_dump -h "$1" --create --data-only --format custom -U "$2" "$db" >> "$DUMP_FILE"
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        [ $? -eq 0 ] || display_error_and_quit
        
        echo "            +-- done."
    done
    
    # we're done
    echo "        +-- done."
}
export -f dump_postgres_dbs


#
# elasticsearch
# 
# info:
#  https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/elasticsearch/guide/master/backing-up-your-cluster.html
# restoring:
#  https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/elasticsearch/reference/master/modules-snapshots.html#_restoring_to_a_different_cluster
#
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# $1             - database host
# $2             - targed directory
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# $3             - optional; location where the temporary backup directory will be created;
#                  if not set, /tmp will be used
#
# we're cheating here a bit:
#  - create a new backup repository
#  - make a snapshot
#  - copy the snapshot data to the right location, outside the repository directory
#  - remove the snapshot
#  - remove the backup repository
#
# NOTICE: this will *ONLY* work on a single-node cluster, or on a cluster where all the nodes
#         have access to the tmp snapshot directory!
#         
# NOTICE: the temporary dump directory has to be accessible both to the elasticsearch server, and to this script
#         (for instance, if they're running in separate docker containers,
#          this directory has to be volume-mounted in both)
function dump_elasticsearch_dbs {
    
    # name of the backup
    BACKUP_NAME="temp_backup_$( date +%F )"
    
    # the temporary backup location
    # this location has to be accessible to the elasticsearch server, and to this script
    # (for instance, if they're running in separate docker containers, this directory has to be volume-mounted in both)
    if [ -z ${3+x} ]; then
        BACKUP_TEMP_DIR="$( mktemp -d --tmpdir="/tmp" )"
    else
        BACKUP_TEMP_DIR="$( mktemp -d --tmpdir="$3" )"
    fi
    
    # let's make sure we have the right perms to create the snapshot
    chmod a+rwX "$BACKUP_TEMP_DIR"
    
    # clean the vars
    clean_db_vars

    # create the directory
    echo "        +-- setup..."
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    echo "            +-- directory: $2"
    mkdir -p "$2"
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    # create the temporary backup repository
    echo "            +-- ES snapshot repository in: $BACKUP_TEMP_DIR"
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    curl -X PUT -H "Content-Type: application/json" "http://$1:9200/_snapshot/$BACKUP_NAME" -d "{
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        \"type\": \"fs\", 
        \"settings\": {
            \"location\": \"$BACKUP_TEMP_DIR\" 
        }
    }"
    echo
    
    # create a snapshot, blocking until it's done
    echo "        +-- dump..."
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    curl -X PUT "http://$1:9200/_snapshot/$BACKUP_NAME/snapshot?wait_for_completion=true" || display_error_and_quit 'Error while generating the snapshot!'
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    echo
    
    # copy the backup to a less temporary location
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    cp -a "$BACKUP_TEMP_DIR"/* "$2/"  || display_error_and_quit 'Error while copying the snapshot data to the target directory!'
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    # cleanup
    echo "        +-- cleanup..."
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    curl -X DELETE "http://$1:9200/_snapshot/$BACKUP_NAME/snapshot" || display_error_and_quit 'Error while cleaning up the snapshot!'
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    echo
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    curl -X DELETE "http://$1:9200/_snapshot/$BACKUP_NAME/" || display_error_and_quit 'Error while cleaning up the backup repository!'
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    echo
    rm -rf "$BACKUP_TEMP_DIR/*"
    echo "        +-- done..."
}
export -f dump_elasticsearch_dbs